UNITED STATES SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
Washington, D.C. 20549
ANNUAL REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d)
OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
For fiscal year ended December 31, 2019
Commission File Number: 1-4018
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
|(State or other jurisdiction of incorporation or organization)||(I.R.S. Employer Identification No.)|
|3005 Highland Parkway|
Downers Grove, Illinois 60515
|(Address of principal executive offices)|
Registrant's telephone number: (630) 541-1540
|Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(b) of the Act:|
Title of Each Class
Name of Each Exchange on Which Registered
|Common Stock, par value $1||DOV||New York Stock Exchange|
|1.250% Notes due 2026||DOV 26||New York Stock Exchange|
|0.750% Notes due 2027||DOV 27||New York Stock Exchange|
|Securities registered pursuant to Section 12(g) of the Act:|
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is a well-known seasoned issuer, as defined in Rule 405 of the Securities Act. Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark if the registrant is not required to file reports pursuant to Section 13 or Section 15(d) of the Act. Yes o No þ
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days. Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically every Interactive Data File required to be submitted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§ 232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit such files.) Yes þ No o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, a smaller reporting, or an emerging growth company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer,” “accelerated filer,” “smaller reporting company” and "emerging growth company" in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act. (Check one):
Large accelerated filer
Accelerated filer o
Non-accelerated filer o
Smaller reporting company o
Emerging growth company o
If an emerging growth company, indicate by check mark if the registrant has elected not to use the extended transition period for complying with any new or revised financial accounting standards provided pursuant to Section 13(a) of the Exchange Act o
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act). Yes ☐ No ☑
The aggregate market value of the voting and non-voting common stock held by non-affiliates of the registrant as of the close of business on June 30, 2019 was $14,526,718,145. The registrant’s closing price as reported on the New York Stock Exchange-Composite Transactions for June 30, 2019 was $100.20 per share. The number of outstanding shares of the registrant’s common stock as of February 4, 2020 was 144,328,014.
Documents Incorporated by Reference: Part III — Certain Portions of the Proxy Statement for Annual Meeting of Shareholders to be held on May 8, 2020 (the “2020 Proxy Statement”).
Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements
This Annual Report on Form 10-K, especially "Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations," contains "forward-looking" statements within the meaning of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995, as amended. All statements in this document other than statements of historical fact are statements that are, or could be deemed, “forward-looking” statements. Some of these statements may be indicated by words such as “may”, “anticipate”, “expect”, believe”, “intend”, “guidance”, “estimates”, “suggest”, “will”, “plan”, “should”, “would”, “could”, “forecast” and other words and terms that use the future tense or have a similar meaning. Forward-looking statements are based on current expectations and are subject to numerous important risks, uncertainties, assumptions and other factors, some of which are beyond the Company’s control. Factors that could cause actual results to differ materially from current expectations include, among other things, general economic conditions and conditions in the particular markets in which we operate, changes in customer demand and capital spending, competitive factors and pricing pressures, our ability to develop and launch new products in a cost-effective manner, changes in law, including developments with respect to trade policy and tariffs, our ability to identify and complete acquisitions and integrate and realize synergies from newly acquired businesses, the impact of interest rate and currency exchange rate fluctuations, capital allocation plans and changes in those plans, including with respect to dividends, share repurchases, investments in research and development, capital expenditures and acquisitions, our ability to derive expected benefits from restructuring, productivity initiatives and other cost reduction actions, changes in material costs or the supply of input materials, the impact of legal compliance risks and litigation, including with respect to product quality and safety, cybersecurity and privacy, and our ability to capture and protect intellectual property rights. Certain of these risks and uncertainties are described in more detail in Item 1A. "Risk Factors" of this Annual Report on Form 10-K. The Company undertakes no obligation to publicly update any forward-looking statement, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise.
In this Annual Report on Form 10-K, we refer to measures used by management to evaluate performance, including a number of financial measures that are not defined under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("GAAP"). We include reconciliations to provide more details on the use and derivation of these financial measures. Please see "Non-GAAP Disclosures" at the end of Item 7 for further detail.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
ITEM 1. BUSINESS
Dover Corporation is a diversified global manufacturer and solutions provider delivering innovative equipment and components, consumable supplies, aftermarket parts, software and digital solutions and support services through five operating segments: Engineered Products, Fueling Solutions, Imaging & Identification, Pumps & Process Solutions, and Refrigeration & Food Equipment. Unless the context indicates otherwise, references herein to "Dover," "the Company," and words such as "we," "us," or "our" include Dover Corporation and its consolidated subsidiaries. Dover was incorporated in 1947 in the State of Delaware and became a publicly traded company in 1955. Dover is headquartered in Downers Grove, Illinois and currently employs approximately 24,000 people worldwide.
Effective October 1, 2019, Dover transitioned from a three-segment to a five-segment structure as a result of a change to its management structure and operating model. Dover's five segments are structured around businesses with similar business models, go-to-market strategies and manufacturing practices. This structure increases management efficiency and better aligns Dover’s operations with its strategic initiatives and capital allocation priorities, and provides greater transparency about our performance to external stakeholders. Dover's five operating and reportable segments are as follows:
•Our Engineered Products segment is a provider of a wide range of products, software and services that have broad customer applications across a number of markets, including aftermarket vehicle service, solid waste handling, industrial automation, aerospace and defense, industrial winch and hoist, and fluid dispensing.
•Our Fueling Solutions segment is focused on providing components, equipment and software and service solutions enabling safe transport of fuels and other hazardous fluids along the supply chain, as well as the safe and efficient operation of retail fueling and vehicle wash establishments.
•Our Imaging & Identification segment supplies precision marking and coding, product traceability and digital textile printing equipment, as well as related consumables, software and services.
•Our Pumps & Process Solutions segment manufactures specialty pumps, fluid handling components, plastics and polymer processing equipment, and highly engineered components for rotating and reciprocating machines.
•Our Refrigeration & Food Equipment segment is a provider of innovative and energy-efficient equipment and systems that serve the commercial refrigeration, heating and cooling and food equipment markets.
Spin-off of Energy Businesses
On May 9, 2018, we completed the spin-off of Apergy Corporation ("Apergy") to our shareholders. Apergy consists of our former upstream energy businesses previously included in our former Energy segment. The transaction was completed through the pro rata distribution of 100% of the common stock of Apergy to Dover's shareholders of record as of the close of business on April 30, 2018. Each Dover shareholder received one share of Apergy common stock for every two shares of Dover common stock held as of the record date. For more details, see Note 2 — Spin-off of Apergy Corporation in the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
Dover is committed to increasing shareholder value through a combination of sustained long-term profitable growth, operational excellence and superior free cash flow generation with productive re-deployment while adhering to a conservative financial policy. Dover seeks to be a leader in a diverse set of growing markets where customers are loyal to established brands and value product performance and differentiation evidenced by superior engineering, manufacturing precision, total solution development and excellent supply chain performance. Our businesses are long-time leaders in their respective markets and are known for their innovation, engineering capability and customer service excellence. We aim to continue growing our businesses from this strong foundation. Our operating structure of five business segments allows for increased differentiated acquisition focus consistent with our portfolio and capital allocation priorities. We believe our five business segment structure also accelerates opportunities to identify and capture operating synergies, such as global sourcing and supply chain integration, shared services, and manufacturing practices, and further advances the development of our executive talent. Our executive management team sets strategic direction, initiatives and goals, provides oversight of strategy execution and achievement of these goals for our operating companies, and with oversight from our Board of Directors, makes capital allocation decisions, including with respect to organic investment initiatives, major capital projects, acquisitions and the return of capital to our shareholders.
We foster an operating culture with high ethical and performance standards that values accountability, rigor, trust, respect and open communications, designed to allow individual growth and operational effectiveness. We are also committed to creating sustainable business practices that protect the environment, and through the development of products that help our customers meet their sustainability goals.
We are committed to driving superior shareholder returns through three key tenets of our corporate strategy. First, we are committed to achieving organic sales growth above that of gross domestic product (GDP+ or 3% to 5% annually on average) over a long-term business cycle, absent prolonged adverse economic conditions, complemented by growth through strategic acquisitions. Second, we continue to focus on improving returns on capital and segment and corporate earnings margins by enhancing our capabilities and making investments across the organization in software and digital applications, operations management, information technology ("IT") and talent. We also focus on continuous, effective cost management and productivity initiatives, including automation and digitally-supported manufacturing, supply chain activities, restructuring activities, improved footprint utilization, strategic pricing and portfolio management. Third, we aim to generate strong free cash flow as a percentage of revenue of approximately 8-12% through strong earnings performance, productivity improvements and active working capital management. Dover prioritizes deploying free cash flow towards high-return and high-confidence organic reinvestments aimed at growing, improving and strengthening our businesses, as well as through inorganic investments that synergistically enhance the quality of our portfolio. Dover’s value creation strategy is supported by a financial policy that includes a prudent approach to financial leverage, and a disciplined approach to capital allocation that allows for a balance between reinvestment and return of capital to shareholders through growing dividends and opportunistic share repurchases. We support achievement of these goals by (1) aligning management compensation with strategic and financial objectives, (2) executing on well-defined and actively managed merger and acquisition processes and (3) investing in talent development programs.
Characteristics of a Dover Business
Our businesses have consistently enjoyed a loyal customer base that chooses products primarily based on performance. In many instances, our businesses produce critical equipment or components to a larger system, where value-in-use and costs and risks of switching far exceed the cost of the product itself. Our products tend to have meaningful replacement, consumable or aftermarket demand due, in part, to a large installed base with loyal customers because they play a specialized role in customer applications. Recurring demand, which includes parts, consumables, services and software, represents approximately 30% of our revenue. Our businesses increasingly complement our component or equipment offerings with digital solutions (such as connected products, sensors and software) that create new sources of value to our customers and allow Dover businesses to drive growth and increase relevance with our customers. Our focus in shaping Dover's portfolio is aimed at building an enterprise with a large and stable cash flow, low capital intensity, and sustainable returns on invested capital well in excess of our cost of capital.
To achieve our stated goals, we are focused on executing the following pillars of Dover’s business strategy:
Capturing growth potential in our end-markets and adjacencies
Dover’s five business segments are focused on building enduring competitive advantages and leadership positions in markets that we believe are positioned for sustained future growth. We believe that our businesses are among the top suppliers in most markets and niches that we serve (as defined by customer applications, geographies or products), which positions us well to capture future growth. We capitalize on our engineering, technology and design expertise and maintain an intense focus on meeting the needs of our customers and adding significant, and often new, value to their operations through superior product performance, safety and reliability and a commitment to aftermarket support. We cultivate and maintain an entrepreneurial culture and continuously innovate to address our customers’ needs to help them win in the markets they serve.
In particular, our businesses are well-positioned to capitalize on growing industrial manufacturing and trade volumes, adoption of digital technologies, increasing requirements for sustainability, safety, energy efficiency and consumer product safety, and growth of the middle class and consumption in emerging economies. Our Engineered Products segment is capitalizing on secular growth in waste generation and increasing sophistication and automation of waste collection operations, increasing car parc, car age and miles driven, as well as increasing digitization and sensorization of modern vehicles. Our Fueling Solutions segment benefits from worldwide growth in safety and compliance regulations, new infrastructure build-out in emerging economies, increased sophistication and digitization of convenience and fuel retailing, as well as a secular growth in automated vehicle wash systems (over manual and do-it-yourself washing). Our Imaging & Identification segment leverages its unique product offering containing equipment, consumables, software and services to address market needs and requirements including conversion to digital textile printing, increased demand for product traceability and brand protection, and consumer product safety. Our Pumps & Process Solutions segment is focused on capturing growth in its installed base and growing sophistication of fluid transfer and rotating machinery components within the chemical, plastics and polymer, industrial, mid and downstream oil & gas, biopharma and hygienic markets as well as globalizing brands across geographies while expanding sales channels and engineering support. Our Refrigeration & Food Equipment segment is responding to our customers’ demand for increased energy efficiency and sustainability in food retail merchandising solutions, as well as increasing demand for sustainable heating and cooling solutions and growing global demand for aluminum beverage cans.
We aim to grow by making organic investments in research and development, developing new products and technologies, improving digital capabilities, expanding our geographic coverage, and by pursuing disciplined strategic acquisitions that will enhance our portfolio and position Dover for long-term growth. We continually evaluate how our assets and capabilities can position Dover to grow in markets adjacent to our core businesses (for example, new applications, geographies, product segments or adjacent technologies) where Dover can be advantaged.
In addition to product innovation, we plan to grow by developing digital technologies. In 2018, we opened our new Digital Labs center in the greater Boston area and have continued to invest in this facility and our team of software developers, data scientists, and product managers to enhance our digital capability. The Digital Labs team is driving digital transformation across our businesses along the following three areas: (i) e-commerce – more efficient and streamlined digital customer interfaces that make it easy to do business with Dover companies; (ii) connected products – development of value-add connected, sensorized and software-augmented solutions built on top of Dover’s core equipment and component offerings in our end-markets; and (iii) digital manufacturing – driving increased efficiency, safety and quality in our manufacturing operations by employing cutting-edge automation and “digital factory” solutions. We believe that the Digital Labs center will enhance the effectiveness of our products and fuel our commercial growth strategy. By leveraging a central resource for Industrial Internet of Things ("IIoT") and connected product initiatives, we are able to reduce redundancy of support infrastructure while managing the proliferation of common parts, such as sensors, to keep our projects cost-competitive.
Improving profitability and return on invested capital
We are committed to generating sustainable returns on invested capital well above the cost of capital across all of our businesses. We continually evaluate and pursue opportunities to improve efficiency, margin and return on capital. We are intensely focused on driving operational excellence across our businesses. Over several years, we have implemented numerous productivity initiatives, such as supply chain integration management, shared service centers and lean manufacturing principles, to maximize our efficiency as well as workplace safety initiatives to help ensure the health and welfare of our employees. Our businesses place a strong emphasis on continual product quality improvement and new product development to better serve customers and to facilitate expansion into new products and geographic markets. Further, we continue to make significant investments in talent development, especially in the area of operational management, and recognize that the growth and development of our employees is essential for our continued success.
In 2018, we launched our margin expansion program, designed to reduce our selling, general and administrative cost base and rationalize our manufacturing and supply chain footprint across the portfolio. In 2019, we continued to expand initiatives to extract productivity gains across the businesses and initiated a set of productivity actions to realize further savings in 2020. Current margin expansion initiatives are focused on the further centralization of shared services under Dover Business Services, improving utilization and optimization of our manufacturing footprint as well as our IT services and costs, and continuing to leverage our Digital Labs team to improve our e-commerce capabilities.
We have invested, and will continue to invest, in Dover Business Services shared service centers to provide important transactional and value-added services to our operating companies in the areas of finance, IT and human resources. Our shared service model allows us to leverage scale across Dover, increase process efficiencies through technology and specialization and reduce risk through centralized controls. Our shared service centers serve our operating companies by freeing resources normally dedicated to transactional services to allow those resources to focus on customers, markets and product excellence. We expect to continue driving efficiencies through Dover Business Services as we increase the level of service centralization across the portfolio.
Digital Labs consists of a team of approximately 100 software developers, data scientists and product managers who provide digital capabilities to enhance the customer experience, develop connected products, and drive automation and efficiency. Our Dover Digital leadership has begun deploying customer facing applications of common infrastructure design to make it easier to find, experience and buy products from Dover. The Digital Labs team has also deployed shared IIoT capability so many of Dover's products are remotely configurable and monitored, enabling our businesses to sell aftermarket parts and offer remote diagnostic services.
In 2019, we launched a set of initiatives to improve operational efficiency and enhance and solidify the continuous improvement programs embedded in our businesses' day-to-day operations beginning with several significant production automation and footprint consolidation projects. With the launch of the new segment structure and continued evolution of Dover’s operating model, we will now oversee operations management from the corporate center. We expect this team to work closely with our businesses to drive execution excellence in our operational initiatives and best-in-class processes, standards and measurement tools to identify, prioritize and monitor execution of operational improvement initiatives.
Additionally, we focus on improving margins and returns by rigorously capturing synergies from our acquisitions and providing best-in-class corporate support and services through a lean corporate center.
Disciplined capital allocation
We are focused on the most efficient allocation of capital to maximize returns on investment. To do this, we prioritize organic reinvestment to grow and strengthen our existing businesses. We plan to make average annual investments in capital spending of approximately 2% - 4% of revenue with a focus on internal projects designed to expand our market participation, develop new products and improve productivity. We also seek to deploy capital in acquisitions in attractive growth areas across our five segments. Dover focuses primarily on bolt-on acquisitions, applying strict selection criteria of market attractiveness (including growth, maturity, and performance-based competition), business fit (including sustained leading position, revenue visibility, and favorable customer value-add versus switching cost or risk) and financial return profile (accretive growth and margins and double-digit return on capital). Finally, we have consistently returned cash to shareholders
by paying dividends, which have increased annually over each of the last 64 years. We also undertake opportunistic share repurchases as part of our capital allocation strategy, and completed $1 billion of share repurchases towards the end of 2017, and in 2018, primarily with funds received from Apergy in connection to the spin-off, and $143.3 million in 2019. We employ a prudent financial policy to support our capital allocation strategy, which includes maintaining an investment grade credit rating.
Our acquisition program has two key elements. As a first priority, we seek to acquire attractive add-on businesses with a strong fit that enhance our existing franchises either by increasing their reach and customer access, by broadening their product mix or by enhancing technological capability and customer value-add. Second, in the right circumstances, we may strategically pursue larger, stand-alone businesses that complement our existing businesses or provide a path for us to pursue growth in near adjacencies. With all our acquisitions, we seek businesses that are leaders in their markets or niches, have a strong track record for innovation, offer differentiated solutions, clearly complement our businesses and have a solid organic growth profile, attractive and sustainable returns, and offer significant synergy potential to generate double-digit return on capital within three years after the acquisition is completed.
Over the past three years (2017 through 2019), we have spent approximately $319.3 million to purchase seven businesses. During 2019, we acquired three businesses for an aggregate consideration of $216.4 million, net of cash acquired and including contingent consideration. Consistent with our acquisition program, we acquired these businesses to complement and expand upon existing operations within the Fueling Solutions and Pumps & Process Solutions segments. During 2018, we acquired two businesses for an aggregate consideration of $68.6 million, net of cash acquired. We acquired these businesses to complement and expand upon existing operations within the Pumps & Process Solutions and Refrigeration & Food Equipment segments. During 2017, we acquired two businesses for an aggregate purchase price of $34.3 million, net of cash acquired, within the Imaging & Identification segment. For more details regarding acquisitions completed over the past three years, see Note 4 — Acquisitions in the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
Our future growth depends in large part on finding and acquiring successful businesses that expand the scope of our offerings and make us an even more important supplier to our customers. While we expect to generate annual organic revenue growth of 3% - 5% over a long-term business cycle absent extraordinary adverse economic conditions, our success in consistently growing the portfolio is also dependent on the ability to acquire and integrate businesses successfully within our existing structure. To track post-merger integration and accountability, we utilize an internal scorecard and well-defined processes to help ensure expected synergies are realized and value is created.
We have sold or divested some of our businesses based on changes in specific market outlook, structural changes in financial performance, value-creation potential, or for other strategic considerations, which included an effort to reduce our exposure to cyclical markets or focus on our higher margin growth spaces. Most of our efforts to streamline and improve the portfolio to less cyclical and higher growth businesses were completed in 2018 with the Apergy spin-off.
Going forward, we also recognize that some businesses in Dover’s portfolio may have a greater value-creation potential if owned by another parent with a larger presence and focus on a given niche. We pragmatically consider such opportunities as part of our ongoing portfolio management and review processes and execute divestitures if the value created is determined to be at an appropriate premium to the value of such business to Dover and allows Dover shareholders to participate in the future value-creation potential from a change in ownership.
During the past three years (2017 through 2019) we have sold businesses for aggregate cash consideration of $400.8 million. During 2019, we completed the sale of Finder Pompe S.r.l. ("Finder") within the Pumps & Process Solutions segment. During 2018, there were no other material dispositions aside from the spin-off of Apergy as previously discussed. The financial position and results of operations for Apergy have been presented as discontinued operations for all periods presented. During 2017, we completed the sale of Performance Motorsports International ("PMI") and the consumer and industrial winch business of Warn Industries ("Warn"), as well as other smaller divestitures. The disposals in 2019 and 2017
did not represent strategic shifts in operations and, therefore, did not qualify for presentation as discontinued operations. For more details, see Note 5 — Discontinued and Disposed Operations in the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
As noted previously, effective October 1, 2019, Dover transitioned from a three-segment to a five-segment structure as a result of a change to its internal organization. This new structure increases management efficiency and better aligns Dover’s operations with its strategic initiatives and capital allocation priorities across its businesses. Dover's five operating and reportable segments are as follows: Engineered Products, Fueling Solutions, Imaging & Identification, Pumps & Process Solutions and Refrigeration & Food Equipment. For financial information about our segments and geographic areas, see Note 19 — Segment Information in the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
Our Engineered Products segment provides a wide range of products, software and services that have broad customer applications across a number of markets, including: solid waste handling, aftermarket vehicle service, industrial automation, aerospace and defense, and industrial winch and hoist. Our waste handling business is a leading North American supplier of equipment, software and services for the refuse collection industry and for on-site processing and compaction of trash and recyclable materials. Our vehicle service business provides products, software and services used primarily in vehicle repair and maintenance, including light and heavy-duty vehicle lifts, wheel service equipment, vehicle diagnostics and vehicle collision repair solutions. The businesses in the industrial automation market provide a wide range of modular automation components including manual clamps, power clamps, rotary and linear mechanical indexers, conveyors, pick and place units, glove ports and manipulators, as well as end-of-arm robotic grippers, slides and end effectors. Our industrial winch and hoist business provides a range of winches, hoists, bearings, drives, and electric monitoring systems for infrastructure and other industrial markets. The segment also supplies radio frequency and microwave filters and switches to enable secure communications in aerospace and defense applications, and benchtop soldering and fluid dispensing solutions in electronics and industrial product assembly.
Our Engineered Products segment's products are manufactured primarily in the United States, Europe and Asia and are sold throughout the world directly and through a network of distributors.
Our Fueling Solutions segment provides components, equipment and software and service solutions enabling safe transport of fuels and other hazardous fluids along the supply chain, as well as safe and efficient operation of retail fueling and vehicle wash establishments across the globe. Among solutions supplied by the segment are fuel dispensers, payment systems, hardware and underground containment systems, vehicle wash systems, as well as asset tracking, monitoring and operational optimization software. Additionally, Fueling Solutions supplies components used for transfer of fuels and other critical liquids across the supply chain.
Our Fueling Solutions segment's products are manufactured primarily in the United States, Europe, China and Brazil and are sold throughout the world directly and through a network of distributors.
Imaging & Identification
The companies in our Imaging & Identification segment are global suppliers of precision marking and coding, product traceability and digital textile printing equipment, as well as related consumables, software and services. The Imaging & Identification segment primarily designs and manufactures equipment and consumables used for printing variable information (such as bar coding of dates and serial numbers) on fast-moving consumer goods, capitalizing on expanding food and product safety and traceability requirements and growth in emerging markets. In addition, our businesses serving the apparel and textile printing market are benefiting from a secular shift from analog to digital printing, resulting from growing demand for “fast fashion”, and more customized and complex fashion designs, as well as increasing environmental sustainability requirements (digital printing process is significantly more environment-friendly due to lower water consumption). Businesses within this segment leverage digital printing capabilities and operate business models that involve initial equipment and software sales followed by significant consumable, software and service aftermarket revenue streams.
Our Imaging & Identification segment's products are manufactured primarily in the United States, Europe and Asia and are sold throughout the world directly and through a network of distributors.
Pumps & Process Solutions
The businesses in our Pumps & Process Solutions segment manufacture specialty pumps, fluid handling components, plastics and polymers processing equipment, and highly-engineered components for rotating and reciprocating machines. The segment’s products are used in a wide variety of markets, including plastics and polymers processing, chemicals production, food/sanitary, biopharma, medical, transportation, petroleum refining, power generation and general industrial applications. Our specialty pumps and components are used in demanding and specialized operating environments with high performance requirements. Businesses within this segment share the following commonalities: the products are components or small pieces of equipment that are part of large production systems with components often specified by customers or regulations, there is a diverse and fragmented customer base, there is significant aftermarket demand from a large installed base, and the route-to-market is a mix of distribution and direct sales.
Our Pumps & Process Solutions segment's products are manufactured primarily in the United States, Europe, Mexico and Asia and are sold throughout the world directly and through a network of distributors and original equipment manufacturers ("OEMs").
Refrigeration & Food Equipment
Our Refrigeration & Food Equipment segment is a provider of innovative and energy-efficient equipment and systems that serve the commercial refrigeration, heating and cooling, and food equipment markets. Our refrigeration business manufactures refrigeration systems, refrigeration display cases, commercial glass refrigerator and freezer doors and brazed plate heat exchangers used for industrial heating and cooling and residential climate control. Other businesses in this segment design and manufacture commercial food service equipment and can-shaping machinery. The majority of the products that are manufactured or serviced by the Refrigeration & Food Equipment segment are used by the retail food industry, including supermarkets, “big-box” retail and convenience stores, the commercial/industrial refrigeration industry, institutional and commercial food service, food production markets and beverage can-shaping industries.
Our Refrigeration & Food Equipment segment's products are manufactured primarily in North America, Europe and Asia and are sold globally, directly and through a network of distributors.
We use a wide variety of raw materials, primarily metals and semi-processed or finished components, which are generally available from a number of sources. As a result, shortages or the loss of any single supplier have not had, and are not likely to have, a material impact on operating profits. While the required raw materials are generally available, commodity pricing can be volatile, particularly for various grades of steel, copper, aluminum and select other commodities. Although cost increases in commodities may be recovered through increased prices to customers, our operating results are exposed to such fluctuations. We attempt to control such costs through fixed-price contracts with suppliers and various other programs, such as our global supply chain activities.
Research and Development
Our businesses invest to develop innovative products, as well as to upgrade and improve existing products, to satisfy customer needs, including demand for energy-efficient products designed to help customers meet sustainability goals, expand revenue opportunities domestically and internationally, maintain or extend competitive advantages, improve product reliability and reduce production costs.
Our Imaging & Identification segment expends significant effort in research and development because the rate of product development by their customers is often quite high. Our businesses that develop product identification and printing equipment believe that their customers expect a continuing rate of product innovation, and performance and total cost of ownership improvement. The result has been that product life cycles in these markets generally average less than five years with meaningful sales price reductions over that time period.
Our other segments contain many businesses that are also involved in important product improvement initiatives. These businesses concentrate on working closely with customers on specific applications, expanding product lines and market applications and continuously improving manufacturing processes. Most of these businesses experience a much more moderate rate of change in their markets and products than is generally experienced by the Imaging & Identification segment.
Our businesses pursue digital strategies based on customer needs and will now be able to leverage cross-company capabilities developed at the Digital Labs center. For example, with the support of the Digital Labs center, Hydro, which manufacturers chemical injecting, proportioning, dispensing and medicating equipment within our Pumps & Process Solutions segment, launched Hydro Connect in 2018. Hydro Connect is a cloud-based IIoT platform that gives end users increased visibility into their operations, optimizes production, reduces costs and increases customer satisfaction. Building on this momentum, we launched a digital initiative in 2018 to help our businesses increase sales and further improve customer satisfaction through digital technology, starting with Dover Food Retail within our Refrigeration & Food Equipment segment.
In 2019, our businesses continued to expand utilization of the Digital Labs center. Our Vehicle Services Group, within the Engineered Products segment, launched Mosiac advanced diagnostic technology, the industry’s first-ever automated advanced driver-assistance system and calibration system through a partnership with Burke Porter Group and the capability developed at the Digital Labs. Additionally, as a part of the digital customer initiative, Colder, a business in the Pumps & Process Solutions segment, and OPW, a business in the Fueling Solutions segment, launched business to business digital engagement platforms that enable their customers to place, track and repeat orders.
Intellectual Property and Intangible Assets
Our businesses own many patents, trademarks, licenses and other forms of intellectual property, which have been acquired over a number of years and, to the extent relevant, expire at various times over a number of years. A large portion of our businesses’ intellectual property consists of patents, unpatented technology and proprietary information constituting trade secrets that we seek to protect in various ways, including confidentiality agreements with employees and suppliers where appropriate. In addition, a significant portion of our intangible assets relate to customer relationships. While our intellectual property and customer relationships are important to our success, the loss or expiration of any of these rights or relationships, or any group of related rights or relationships, is not likely to materially affect our results on a consolidated basis. We believe that our commitment to continuous engineering improvements, new product development and improved manufacturing techniques, as well as strong sales, marketing and service efforts, are significant to our general leadership positions in the niche markets we serve.
We serve thousands of customers, none of which accounted for more than 10% of our consolidated revenue in 2019. Given our diversity of served markets, customer concentrations are not significant. Businesses supplying the environmental solutions, defense, automotive and commercial refrigeration industries tend to deal with a few large customers that are significant within those industries. This also tends to be true for businesses supplying the power generation and chemical industries. In the other markets served, there is usually a much lower concentration of customers, particularly where our companies provide a substantial number of products and services applicable to a broad range of end-use applications.
In general, while our businesses are not highly seasonal, we do tend to have stronger revenue generation in the second half of the year, which is driven by customer capital expenditure timing and seasonal activity patterns in our end-markets. Our businesses serving the retail fueling market tend to increase in the second half of the year based on the historical purchasing patterns of their customers. Our businesses serving the major equipment markets, such as power generation, chemical and processing industries, have longer lead times geared to seasonal, commercial, or consumer demands and customers in these markets tend to delay or accelerate product ordering and delivery to coincide with those market trends which moderates the aforementioned seasonality patterns. Our food retail refrigeration business tends to face higher levels of demand in the second and third quarters as retailers avoid construction and remodeling activity during fall/winter holidays.
Backlog is more relevant to our businesses that produce larger and more sophisticated machines or have long-term contracts, primarily for the businesses serving solid waste handling, plastics and polymers processing, bearings and compressor components, can-shaping equipment and commercial refrigeration markets. See Segment Results of Operations within Item 7 for further discussion of this operational measure. Our total backlog relating to our businesses as of December 31, 2019 and 2018 was $1.5 billion and $1.4 billion, respectively.
Our competitive environment is complex because of the wide diversity of our products manufactured and the markets served. In general, most of our businesses are market leaders that compete with only a few companies, and the key competitive factors are customer service, product quality, price and innovation. A summary of our key competitors within each of our segments follows:
|Engineered Products||Oshkosh Corp. (McNeilus), Tünkers Maschinenbau GmbH, Snap-On Inc. (Challenger Lifts, Car-O-Liner), Labrie Enviroquip Group, PACCAR (Braden), Fortive (Hennessey Industries, Inc.) and numerous others|
|Fueling Solutions||Fortive (Gilbarco Veeder-Root), Tatsuno, Verifone, Franklin Electric, Elaflex, Gardner Denver, Inc. (Emco Wheaton), Dixon Valve & Coupling Company, Professional Datasolutions, Inc. (PDI), Salco, Washtec AG|
|Imaging & Identification||Danaher Corporation (Videojet), Brother Industries, Ltd. (Domino Printing), Electronics For Imaging (Reggiani), SPG Prints, Konica Minolta, Kornit Digital Ltd.|
|Pumps & Process Solutions||IDEX Corporation, ITT, SPX Flow Inc. (Waukesha), Ingersoll Rand (Milton Roy, Dosatron), Spirax Sarco, Nordson Corporation, Kingsbury, Seko, Ecolab, Millipore, Danaher Corporation (Pall), EnPro Industries (Compressor Products International, Garlock), Hoerbiger Holdings AG, Miba AG, Hillenbrand Inc. (Coperion)|
|Refrigeration & Food Equipment||Panasonic (Hussman Corp.), Alfa Laval, Welbilt Corp, Illinois Tool Works, Middleby Corp.|
Consistent with our strategic focus on positioning our businesses for growth, we aim to increase our revenue in international markets, particularly in developing economies in Asia, the Middle East, Eastern Europe and South America.
Most of our non-U.S. subsidiaries and affiliates are currently based in China, France, Germany, Italy, Sweden, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and other locations including Australia, Brazil, Canada, India, Mexico, and the Netherlands.
The following table shows annual revenue derived from customers outside the U.S. as a percentage of total annual revenue for each of the last three years, by segment and in total:
|Percentage of Non-U.S. Revenue |
|Years Ended December 31,|
|Engineered Products||27 ||%||30 ||%||30 ||%|
|Fueling Solutions||52 ||%||54 ||%||53 ||%|
|Imaging & Identification||77 ||%||78 ||%||77 ||%|
|Pumps & Process Solutions||49 ||%||51 ||%||50 ||%|
|Refrigeration & Food Equipment||39 ||%||38 ||%||34 ||%|
|Total percentage of revenue derived from customers outside of the United States||47 ||%||48 ||%||46 ||%|
Our international operations are subject to certain risks, such as price and exchange rate fluctuations and non-U.S. governmental restrictions, which are discussed further in Item 1A. "Risk Factors." For additional details regarding our non-U.S. revenue and the geographic allocation of the assets of our continuing operations, see Note 19 — Segment Information to the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K.
We are committed to creating economic value for shareholders by developing products designed to help our customers meet their sustainability goals in response to evolving regulatory and environmental standards. We believe that sustainability-driven innovation in response to customer demand will present a growth opportunity while contributing positively to enhanced resource efficiency and reduced waste. In that regard, our businesses have accelerated efforts and processes around innovation, including by focusing on technologies that create tangible value for our customers. For example, in our Engineered Products segment, we manufacture onsite waste balers and compactors for customers who need to quickly and efficiently process solid waste and recyclables. In our Imaging & Identification segment, we offer packaging intelligence solutions that enable efficient product tracking and identification as well as improved line efficiency, minimized waste and improved compliance for our customers. Our Fueling Solutions segment offers products that support the delivery of alternative fuels, help reduce vehicle emissions and assist in vapor recovery. Through our Pumps and Solutions segment, we focus on the conversion to sustainable and renewable energy usage in heating and cooling applications. We have developed innovative retail refrigeration technologies in our Refrigeration & Food Equipment segment that are both energy efficient and cost effective.
We are also committed to fostering sustainable business practices across our businesses in order to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption. We believe that our focus on sustainability will result in enhanced efficiency in our operations, which will reduce costs, improve margins and help us achieve operational excellence. In 2010, we implemented a process to conduct an inventory of our greenhouse gas emissions. Since then, we have evaluated our climate change risks and opportunities, as well as developed an energy and climate change strategy that includes goals, objectives and related projects for reducing energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. To further promote our sustainability efforts, we committed to reducing our overall energy and greenhouse gas intensity indexed to net revenue by 20% from 2010 to 2020. We have achieved those goals ahead of schedule. We are currently evaluating our strategic approach to managing sustainability matters and plan to continue reporting on our energy and greenhouse gas intensity and to work proactively to reduce energy usage and carbon emissions amidst acquisition and business growth. We have participated as a voluntary respondent in the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP) since 2010 and have maintained our scoring range since we began reporting. We began participating in the CDP water security program in 2018 and expanded our reporting in 2019 with water data collection.
As noted, our businesses assess the energy efficiencies related to their operations and the opportunities associated with the use of their products and services by customers. In some instances, our businesses may be able to help customers reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. Increased demand for energy-efficient products based on a variety of drivers could result in increased sales for a number of our businesses.
Our operations are governed by a variety of international, national, state and local environmental laws. We are committed to continued compliance and believe our operations generally are in substantial compliance with these laws. In a few instances, particular plants and businesses have been the subject of administrative and legal proceedings with governmental agencies or private parties relating to the discharge or potential discharge of regulated substances. Where necessary, these matters have been addressed with specific consent orders to achieve compliance.
There have been no material effects upon our earnings and competitive position resulting from our compliance with laws or regulations enacted or adopted relating to the protection of the environment. We are aware of a number of existing or upcoming regulatory initiatives intended to reduce emissions in geographies where our manufacturing and warehouse/distribution facilities are located and have evaluated the potential impact of these regulations on our businesses. We anticipate that direct impacts from regulatory actions will not be significant in the short- to medium-term. We expect the regulatory
impacts associated with climate change regulation would be primarily indirect and would result in "pass through" costs from energy suppliers, suppliers of raw materials and other services related to our operations.
We had approximately 24,000 employees as of December 31, 2019.
We make available free of charge through the "Investor Information" link on our website, www.dovercorporation.com, our annual reports on Form 10-K, quarterly reports on Form 10-Q, current reports on Form 8-K and any amendments to these reports. We post each of these reports on the website as soon as reasonably practicable after the report is filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. The information on our website is not incorporated into this Form 10-K.
ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
The risk factors discussed in this section should be considered together with information included elsewhere in this Form 10-K and should not be considered the only risks to which we are exposed. In general, we are subject to the same general risks and uncertainties that impact many other industrial companies such as general economic, industry and/or market conditions and growth rates; the impact of natural disasters and their effect on global markets; and changes in laws or accounting rules. Additional risks and uncertainties not currently known to us or that we currently believe are immaterial also may impair our business, including our results of operations, liquidity and financial condition.
•Our results may be impacted by current domestic and international economic conditions and uncertainties.
Our businesses may be adversely affected by disruptions in the financial markets or declines in economic activity both domestically and internationally in those countries in which we operate. These circumstances will also impact our suppliers and customers in various ways which could have an impact on our business operations, particularly if global credit markets are not operating efficiently and effectively to support industrial commerce.
Negative changes in worldwide economic and capital market conditions are beyond our control, are highly unpredictable and can have an adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations, financial condition, cash flows and cost of capital.
•We are subject to risks relating to our existing international operations and expansion into new geographical markets.
Approximately 47% and 48% of our revenues for 2019 and 2018, respectively, were derived outside the United States. We continue to focus on global markets as part of our overall growth strategy and expect sales from outside the United States to continue to represent a significant portion of our revenues. Our international operations and our global expansion strategy are subject to general risks related to such operations, including:
|o ||political, social and economic instability and disruptions;|
|o ||government export controls, economic sanctions, embargoes or trade restrictions;|
|o ||the imposition of duties and tariffs and other trade barriers;|
|o ||limitations on ownership and dividend of earnings;|
|o ||transportation delays and interruptions;|
|o ||labor unrest and current and changing regulatory environments;|
|o ||health or similar issues, such as a pandemic or epidemic;|
|o ||increased compliance costs, including costs associated with disclosure requirements and related due diligence;|
|o ||the impact of loss of a single-source manufacturing facility;|
|o ||difficulties in staffing and managing multi-national operations;|
|o ||limitations on our ability to enforce legal rights and remedies; and|
|o ||access to or control of networks and confidential information due to local government controls and vulnerability of local networks to cyber risks.|
If we are unable to successfully manage the risks associated with expanding our global business or adequately manage operational risks of our existing international operations, the risks could have a material adverse effect on our growth in geographic markets, our reputation, our consolidated results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
•Our exposure to exchange rate fluctuations on cross-border transactions and the translation of local currency results into U.S. dollars could negatively impact our results of operations.
We conduct business through our subsidiaries in many different countries, and fluctuations in currency exchange rates could have a significant impact on our reported consolidated results of operations, financial condition and cash flows, which are presented in U.S. dollars. Cross-border transactions, both with external parties and intercompany relationships, result in increased exposure to foreign exchange effects. Accordingly, significant changes in currency exchange rates, particularly the Euro, Chinese Renminbi (Yuan), Swedish krona, Pound Sterling, Indian rupee, Singapore dollar, Danish krone, and Canadian dollar, could cause fluctuations in the reported results of our businesses’ operations that could negatively affect our results of operations. Additionally, the strengthening of certain currencies such as the Euro and U.S. dollar potentially exposes us to competitive threats from lower cost producers in other countries. Our sales are translated into U.S. dollars for reporting purposes. The strengthening of the U.S. dollar could result in unfavorable translation effects as the results of foreign locations are translated into U.S. dollars.
•Increasing product/service and price competition by international and domestic competitors, including new entrants, and our inability to introduce new and competitive products could cause our businesses to generate lower revenue, operating profits and cash flows.
Our competitive environment is complex because of the wide diversity of the products that our businesses manufacture and the markets they serve. In general, most of our businesses compete with only a few companies. Our ability to compete effectively depends on how successfully we anticipate and respond to various competitive factors, including new products, digital solutions and support services that may be introduced by competitors, changes in customer preferences, evolving regulations, new business models and technologies and pricing pressures. If our businesses are unable to anticipate their competitors’ developments or identify customer needs and preferences on a timely basis, or successfully introduce new products, digital solutions and support services in response to such competitive factors, they could lose customers to competitors. If our businesses do not compete effectively, we may experience lower revenue, operating profits and cash flows.
•Our operating results depend in part on the timely development and commercialization, and customer acceptance, of new and enhanced products, digital solutions and support services based on technological innovation.
The success of new and improved products, digital solutions and support services depends on their initial and continued acceptance by our customers. Certain of our businesses sell in markets that are characterized by rapid technological changes, frequent new product introductions, changing industry standards and corresponding shifts in customer demand, which may result in unpredictable product transitions, shortened life cycles and increased importance of being first to market. Failure to correctly identify and predict customer needs and preferences, to deliver high quality, innovative and competitive products to the market, to adequately protect our intellectual property rights or to acquire rights to third-party technologies and to stimulate customer demand for, and convince customers to adopt new products, digital solutions and support services could adversely affect our consolidated results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. In addition, we may experience difficulties or delays in the research, development, production or marketing of new products, digital solutions and support services which may prevent us from recouping or realizing a return on the investments required to continue to bring new products and services to market.
•Tariffs have resulted in increased prices and could adversely affect our consolidated results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
Over the last several years, tariffs under Section 232 of the Trade Expansion Act of 1962 have been imposed on certain steel and aluminum products imported into the U.S. which have increased the prices of these inputs. Increased prices for imported steel and aluminum products have led domestic sellers to respond with market-based increases to prices for such inputs as well. Tariffs under Section 301 of the Trade Expansion Act were also imposed on goods imported from China in connection with China's intellectual property practices which may increase the cost to our customers of our products manufactured in China as well as the cost of Chinese sourced parts and components for our products manufactured in the U.S. China also has imposed tariffs on some U.S. goods that we manufacture and sell into China.
An additional round of tariffs may be imposed on goods imported from China if ongoing trade negotiations between the U.S. and China are not successful. The existing tariffs, along with any additional tariffs or trade restrictions that may be implemented by the U.S. or other countries, could result in further increased prices and a decreased available supply of steel and aluminum as well as additional costs on imported components and inputs. We may not be able to pass price increases on to our customers and may not be able to secure adequate alternative sources on a timely basis. While retaliatory tariffs imposed by other countries on U.S. goods have not yet had a significant impact, we cannot predict further developments. The tariffs could adversely affect the operating profits for certain of our businesses and customer demand for certain of our products which could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations, financial position and cash flows.
•Our businesses are subject to regulation and their profitability and reputation could be adversely affected by domestic and foreign governmental and public policy changes, risks associated with emerging markets, changes in statutory tax rates and unanticipated outcomes with respect to tax audits.
Our businesses’ domestic and international sales and operations must comply with a wide variety of laws, regulations and policies (including environmental, employment and health and safety regulations, data security laws, data privacy laws, export/import laws, tax policies such as export subsidy programs and research and experimentation credits, carbon emission regulations and energy efficiency and design regulations and other similar programs). These laws, regulations and policies are complex, change frequently, have tended to become more stringent over time and may be inconsistent across jurisdictions. Failure to comply (or any alleged or perceived failure to comply) with any of the foregoing could result in civil and criminal, monetary and non-monetary penalties as well as potential damage to our reputation and disruption to our business. We cannot provide assurance that our costs of complying with new and evolving regulatory reporting requirements and current or future laws will not exceed our estimates. In addition, the Brexit withdrawal agreement and subsequent negotiations as to go-forward terms and conditions between the United Kingdom and the European Union may continue to cause political and economic uncertainty, including significant volatility in global stock markets and currency exchange rate fluctuations. Although it is unknown what the full terms of the United Kingdom’s future relationship with the European Union will be following the transition period in 2020, it is possible that there will be greater restrictions on imports and exports between the United Kingdom and other countries and increased regulatory complexities. Any of these factors could adversely affect customer demand, our relationships with customers and suppliers, and our business and financial position.
Certain of our businesses have sales or operations in countries, including Brazil, Russia, India and China, and may in the future invest in other countries, any of which may carry high levels of currency, political, compliance, or economic risk. While these risks or the impact of these risks are difficult to predict, any one or more of them could adversely affect our businesses and reputation.
Our effective tax rate is impacted by changes in the mix among earnings in countries with differing statutory tax rates, changes in the valuation allowance of deferred tax assets and changes in tax laws. The amount of income taxes and other taxes paid can be adversely impacted by changes in statutory tax rates and laws and are subject to ongoing audits by domestic and international authorities. If these audits result in assessments different from amounts estimated, then our consolidated results of operations, financial position and cash flows may be adversely affected by unfavorable tax adjustments.
•We could lose customers or generate lower revenue, operating profits and cash flows if there are significant increases in the cost of our raw materials or components or if suppliers are not able to meet our quality and delivery requirements.
We purchase raw materials, sub-assemblies and components for use in our manufacturing operations, which exposes us to pricing and supply risks. Significant price increases for certain commodities, other raw materials or components could adversely affect operating profits of our businesses. While we generally attempt to mitigate the impact of increased raw material prices by hedging or passing along the increased costs to customers, there may be a time delay between the increased raw material prices and the ability to increase the prices of products, or we may be unable to increase the prices of products due to a competitor’s pricing pressure or other factors.
We use a wide range of raw materials and components in our manufacturing operations that come from numerous suppliers around the world. While we believe that sources of supply for raw materials and components are generally
adequate, it is difficult to predict what effects shortages may have in the future. In addition, some of the raw materials and components may be available only from limited or single source suppliers. If a single source or limited source supplier were to cease or interrupt production for any reason or otherwise fail to supply those raw materials or components to us on favorable purchase terms, including at favorable prices, in sufficient quantities and with adequate lead times needed for efficient manufacturing, our ability to meet customer commitments, and satisfy market demands for affected products could be negatively affected. Consequently, a significant price increase in raw materials or a shortage in or the unavailability of raw materials or components may result in a loss of customers and adversely impact our consolidated results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
•Our growth and results of operations may be adversely affected if we are unsuccessful in our capital allocation and acquisition program.
We expect to continue our strategy of seeking to acquire value creating add-on businesses that broaden our existing position and global reach as well as, in the right circumstances, strategically pursue larger acquisitions that could have the potential to either complement our existing businesses or allow us to pursue a new platform. However, there can be no assurance that we will be able to continue to find suitable businesses to purchase, that we will be able to acquire such businesses on acceptable terms, or that all closing conditions will be satisfied with respect to any pending acquisition. In addition, we face the risk that a completed acquisition may underperform relative to expectations. We may not achieve the synergies originally anticipated, may become exposed to unexpected liabilities or may not be able to sufficiently integrate completed acquisitions into our current business and growth model. Further, if we fail to allocate our capital appropriately, in respect of either our acquisition program or organic growth in our operations, we could be overexposed in certain markets and geographies and unable to expand into adjacent products or markets. These factors could potentially have an adverse impact on our consolidated results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
•Our operating profits and cash flows could be adversely affected if we cannot achieve projected savings and synergies.
We are continually evaluating our cost structure and seeking ways to capture synergies across our operations. For example, we recorded rightsizing costs in 2018, comprised of restructuring expense of $58.5 million and other costs of $14.3 million, and rightsizing costs in 2019, comprised of restructuring expense of $26.8 million and other costs of $5.3 million, primarily related to actions taken on employee reductions, facility consolidations and site closures, product line exits and other associated asset charges. These rightsizing activities and our regular ongoing cost reduction activities (including in connection with the integration of acquired businesses) may reduce our available talent, assets and other resources and could slow improvements in our products and services, adversely affect our ability to respond to customers and limit our ability to increase production quickly if demand for our products increases. In addition, delays in implementing planned restructuring activities or other productivity improvements, and unexpected costs or failure to meet targeted improvements may diminish the operational or financial benefits we expect to realize through our various programs. Any of the circumstances described above could adversely affect our consolidated results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
•Our operations, businesses and products are subject to cybersecurity risks.
We depend on our own and third party IT systems, including cloud-based systems and managed service providers, to store, process and protect our information and support our business activities. We also use our third party IT systems to support employee data processing for our global work force and to support customer business activities, such as transmitting payment information, providing mobile monitoring services, and capturing operational data. Additionally, some of our products contain computer hardware and software and offer the ability to connect to computer networks. If these technologies, systems, products or services are damaged, cease to function properly, are compromised due to employee error, user error, malfeasance, system errors, or other vulnerabilities, or are subject to cybersecurity attacks, such as those involving denial of service attacks, unauthorized access, malicious software, or other intrusions, including by criminals, nation states or insiders, our business may be adversely impacted. The impacts could include production downtimes, operational delays, and other impacts on our operations and ability to provide products and services to our customers; compromise of confidential, proprietary or otherwise protected information, including personal information and customer confidential data; destruction, corruption, or theft of data; manipulation, disruption, or improper use of these technologies, systems, products or services; financial losses from fraudulent transactions, remedial actions, loss of business or potential liability; adverse media coverage; and legal claims or legal proceedings, including regulatory investigations and actions; and damage to our reputation. There has been a rise in the number of cyberattacks targeting
confidential business information generally and in the manufacturing industry specifically, as well as an increase in cyberattacks targeting managed service providers, by both state-sponsored and criminal organizations. Moreover, there has been a rise in the number of cyberattacks that depend on human error or manipulation, including phishing attacks or schemes that use social engineering to gain access to systems or perpetuate wire transfer or other frauds.
These trends increase the likelihood of such events occurring as well as the costs associated with protecting against such attacks. It is possible for vulnerabilities in our IT systems to remain undetected for an extended period of time up to and including several years. While we attempt to mitigate these risks by employing a number of measures, including employee training, systems monitoring and other technical security controls, a breach response plan, maintenance of backup and protective systems, and security personnel, our systems, networks, products and services remain potentially vulnerable to known or unknown cybersecurity attacks and other threats, any of which could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. We, and the service providers that we depend on to support our systems and business operations, are regularly the target of attempted cyberattacks, including phishing and denial-of-service attacks, and must continuously monitor and develop our systems to protect our technology infrastructure and data from misappropriation or corruption. In addition, a cybersecurity attack could persist for an extended period of time before being detected, and, following detection, it could take considerable time for us to obtain full and reliable information about the extent, amount and type of information compromised. During the course of an investigation, we may not know the full impact of the event and how to remediate it, and actions, decisions and mistakes that are taken or made may further increase the negative effects of the event on our business, results of operations and reputation. While we maintain insurance coverage that is intended to address certain aspects of cybersecurity risks, such insurance coverage may not cover all losses or all types of claims that arise. As cyber threats continue to evolve, cybersecurity and data protection laws and regulations continue to develop in the U.S. and globally, and our business continues to move towards increased online connectivity within our information systems and through more Internet-enabled products and offerings, we expect to expend additional resources to continue to build out our compliance programs, strengthen our information security, data protection and business continuity measures, and investigate and remediate vulnerabilities.
•Unforeseen developments in contingencies such as litigation and product recalls could adversely affect our consolidated results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
We and certain of our subsidiaries are, and from time to time may become, parties to a number of legal proceedings incidental to our businesses, including alleged injuries arising out of the use of products or exposure to hazardous substances, or claims related to patent infringement, employment matters and commercial disputes. The defense of these lawsuits may require significant expenses and divert management’s attention, and we may be required to pay damages that could adversely affect our consolidated results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. In addition, any insurance or indemnification rights that we may have may be insufficient or unavailable to protect us against potential loss exposures.
We may be exposed to product recalls and adverse public relations if our products are alleged to have defects, to cause property damage, to cause injury or illness, or if we are alleged to have violated governmental regulations. A product recall could result in substantial and unexpected expenditures, which would reduce operating profit and cash flow. In addition, a product recall may require significant management attention. Product recalls may hurt the value of our brands and lead to decreased demand for our products. Product recalls also may lead to increased scrutiny by federal, state or international regulatory agencies of our operations and increased litigation and could have a material adverse effect on our consolidated results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
•If the Apergy spin-off, together with certain related transactions, does not qualify as a transaction that is generally tax-free for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we and our shareholders could be subject to significant tax liabilities.
In connection with the spin-off of Apergy, we received a private letter ruling from the Internal Revenue Service (the "IRS Ruling") together with an opinion of McDermott Will & Emery LLP, our tax counsel, substantially to the effect that, among other things, certain transactions to effect the spin-off will qualify as a tax-free reorganization for U.S. federal income tax purposes under Section 368(a)(1)(D) of the Internal Revenue Code (the “Code”), and the distribution will qualify as a tax-free distribution to our shareholders under Section 355 of the Code. The IRS Ruling and the opinion of tax counsel relied on certain facts and assumptions, and certain representations and undertakings from us and Apergy,
including those regarding the past and future conduct of certain of our businesses and other matters. If any of these facts, assumptions, representations or undertakings are incorrect or not satisfied, we and our shareholders may not be able to rely on the IRS Ruling or the opinion, and could be subject to significant tax liabilities. Notwithstanding the IRS Ruling and the opinion, the IRS could determine on audit that the distribution is taxable if it determines that any of these facts, assumptions, representations or undertakings are not correct or have been violated or if it disagrees with the conclusions in the opinion. In addition, we and Apergy intend for certain related transactions to qualify for tax-free treatment under U.S. federal, state and local tax law and/or foreign tax law.
If the distribution is determined to be taxable for U.S. federal income tax purposes, we and our shareholders that are subject to U.S. federal income tax could incur significant U.S. federal income tax liabilities. For example, if the distribution fails to qualify for tax-free treatment, we would, for U.S. federal income tax purposes, be treated as if we had sold the Apergy common stock in a taxable sale for its fair market value, and our shareholders who are subject to U.S. federal income tax would be treated as receiving a taxable distribution in an amount equal to the fair market value of the Apergy common stock received in the distribution. In addition, if certain related transactions fail to qualify for tax-free treatment under U.S. federal, state and local tax law and/or foreign tax law, we could incur significant tax liabilities under U.S. federal, state, local and/or foreign tax law, respectively.
•The indemnification provisions of acquisition and disposition agreements by which we have acquired or sold or disposed of companies may not fully protect us and may result in unexpected liabilities.
Certain of the acquisition agreements by which we have acquired companies require the former owners to indemnify us against certain liabilities related to the operation of those companies before we acquired them. In most of these agreements, however, the liability of the former owners is limited and certain former owners may be unable to meet their indemnification responsibilities. Similarly, the purchasers of our disposed operations may from time to time agree to indemnify us for operations of such businesses after the closing. We cannot be assured that any of these indemnification provisions will fully protect us, and as a result we may face unexpected liabilities that adversely affect our consolidated results of operations, financial condition and cash flows. In addition, we have retained certain liabilities directly or through indemnifications made to the buyers of businesses we have sold or disposed against known and unknown contingent liabilities such as tax liabilities and environmental matters.
In connection with the spin-off, Apergy agreed to indemnify us for any losses relating to the conduct of the Apergy business. There can be no assurance that the indemnity agreements will be sufficient to protect us against the full amount of any liabilities that may arise, or that the indemnitors will be able to fully satisfy their indemnification obligations. The failure to receive amounts for which we are entitled to indemnification could adversely affect our results of operations, cash flows and financial condition.
•Our reputation, ability to do business and results of operations may be impaired by improper conduct by any of our employees, agents, or business partners.
While we strive to maintain high standards, we cannot provide assurance that our internal controls and compliance systems will always protect us from acts committed by our employees, agents, or business partners that would violate United States and/or non-United States laws or fail to protect our confidential information, including the laws governing payments to government officials, bribery, fraud, anti-kickback and false claims, competition, export and import compliance, money laundering and data privacy, as well as the improper use of proprietary information or social media. Any such violations of law or improper actions could subject us to civil or criminal investigations in the United States and in other jurisdictions, could lead to substantial civil or criminal, monetary and non-monetary penalties and related shareholder lawsuits, could lead to increased costs of compliance and could damage our reputation, our consolidated results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
•Our revenue, operating profits and cash flows could be adversely affected if our businesses are unable to protect or obtain patent and other intellectual property rights.
Our businesses own patents, trademarks, licenses and other forms of intellectual property related to their products and continuously invest in research and development that may result in innovations and general intellectual property rights. Our businesses employ various measures to develop, maintain and protect their intellectual property rights. These measures may not be effective in capturing intellectual property rights, and they may not prevent their intellectual property from being challenged, invalidated, or circumvented, particularly in countries where intellectual property rights are not highly developed or protected. Unauthorized use of our businesses' intellectual property rights could adversely impact the competitive position of our businesses and could have a negative impact on our consolidated results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
•If we experience work stoppages, union and works council campaigns and other labor disputes, our productivity and results of operations could be adversely impacted.
We have a number of collective bargaining units in the United States and various foreign collective labor arrangements. We are subject to potential work stoppages, union and works council campaigns and other labor disputes, any of which could adversely impact our productivity, reputation, consolidated results of operations, financial condition and cash flows.
ITEM 1B. UNRESOLVED STAFF COMMENTS
ITEM 2. PROPERTIES
The number, type, location and size of the properties used by our operations as of December 31, 2019 are shown in the following charts, by segment:
|Number and nature of facilities||Square footage (in 000s)|
|Manufacturing||Warehouse||Sales / Service||Total||Owned||Leased|
|Engineered Products||29 || ||17 || ||9 || ||55 || ||2,905 || ||1,265 || |
|Fueling Solutions||25 || ||8 || ||24 || ||57 || ||926 || ||1,855 || |
|Imaging & Identification||12 || ||15 || ||58 || ||85 || ||662 || ||908 || |
|Pumps & Process Solutions||36 || ||6 || ||24 || ||66 || ||3,060 || ||1,441 || |
|Refrigeration & Food Equipment||24 || ||24 || ||18 || ||66 || ||1,506 || ||2,444 || |
|Locations||Expiration dates of leased facilities (in years)|
|Engineered Products||33 || ||14 || ||5 || ||1 || ||53 || ||1||9|
|Fueling Solutions||13 || ||15 || ||10 || ||2 || ||40 || ||1||13|
|Imaging & Identification||10 || ||37 || ||23 || ||1 || ||71 || ||1||12|
|Pumps & Process Solutions||34 || ||14 || ||10 || ||4 || ||62 || ||1||11|
|Refrigeration & Food Equipment||33 || ||14 || ||9 || ||4 || ||60 || ||1||11|
Our owned and leased facilities are well-maintained and suitable for our operations.
ITEM 3. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
A few of our subsidiaries are involved in legal proceedings relating to the cleanup of waste disposal sites identified under federal and state statutes which provide for the allocation of such costs among "potentially responsible parties." In each instance, the extent of the subsidiary’s liability appears to be relatively insignificant in relation to the total projected expenditures and the number of other "potentially responsible parties" involved and it is anticipated to be immaterial to us on a consolidated basis. In addition, a few of our subsidiaries are involved in ongoing remedial activities at certain plant sites, in cooperation with regulatory agencies, and appropriate reserves have been established. At December 31, 2019 and 2018, we have reserves totaling $30.6 million and $31.8 million, respectively, for environmental and other matters, including private party claims for exposure to hazardous substances, that are probable and estimable.
The Company and certain of its subsidiaries are also parties to a number of other legal proceedings incidental to their businesses. These proceedings primarily involve claims by private parties alleging injury arising out of use of the Company’s products, exposure to hazardous substances, patent infringement, employment matters and commercial disputes. Management and legal counsel, at least quarterly, review the probable outcome of such proceedings, the costs and expenses reasonably expected to be incurred and currently accrued to-date and consider the availability and extent of insurance coverage. The Company has reserves for other legal matters that are probable and estimable and at December 31, 2019 and 2018, these reserves are not significant. While it is not possible at this time to predict the outcome of these legal actions, in the opinion of management, based on the aforementioned reviews, the Company is not currently involved in any legal proceedings which, individually or in the aggregate, could have a material effect on its financial position, results of operations, or cash flows.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
INFORMATION ABOUT OUR EXECUTIVE OFFICERS
All of our officers are elected annually at the first meeting of the Board of Directors following our annual meeting of shareholders, and are subject to removal at any time by the Board of Directors. Our executive officers as of February 14, 2020, and their positions with Dover (and, where relevant, prior business experience) for the past five years, are as follows:
|Name||Age||Positions Held and Prior Business Experience|
|Richard J. Tobin||56 || ||President and Chief Executive Officer (since May 2018) and Director (since August 2016); prior thereto Chief Executive Officer (from 2013 to 2018) of CNH Industrial NV.|
|Kimberly K. Bors||59 || ||Senior Vice President, Human Resources (since January 2020) of Dover; prior thereto Senior Vice President – Human Resources of The Mosaic Company (from July 2017 to December 2018); prior thereto Senior Vice President, Human Resources & Administration for Schneider, North America at Schneider Electric (September 2014 to June 2017).|
|Ivonne M. Cabrera||53 || ||Senior Vice President, General Counsel and Secretary of Dover (since January 2013).|
|Brad M. Cerepak||60 || ||Senior Vice President and Chief Financial Officer (since May 2011) of Dover.|
|Girish Juneja||50 || ||Senior Vice President and Chief Digital Officer (since May 2017) of Dover; prior thereto Senior Vice President/Chief Technology Officer and General Manager of the Marketplace Solutions Business of Altisource (from January 2014 to April 2017).|
|David J. Malinas||45 || |
Senior Vice President, Operations (since July 2019) of Dover; prior thereto Senior Vice President and President, Industrial Process for ITT Corporation (from June 2017 to June 2019); prior thereto Vice President and General Manager, Controlled Temperature Technologies Businesses at Thermo Fisher Scientific Inc. ("Thermo Fisher") (from March 2017 to June 2017); prior thereto Vice President, Industrial Segment at Thermo Fischer (from December 2015 to March 2017); prior thereto Vice President and General Manager, Global Chemicals Business Unit (from June 2012 to November 2015) at Thermo Fisher.
|Anthony K. Kosinski||53 || ||Vice President, Tax (since June 2016) of Dover; prior thereto Director, Domestic Tax (June 2003 to June 2016) of Dover.|
|James M. Moran||54 || ||Vice President, Treasurer (since November 2015) of Dover; prior thereto Senior Vice President and Treasurer (from June 2013 to August 2015) of Navistar International Corporation (“NIC”); prior thereto Vice President and Treasurer (from 2008 to June 2013) of NIC; also served as Senior Vice President and Treasurer of Navistar, Inc. (from June 2013 to August 2015) .|
|Ryan W. Paulson||46 || ||Vice President & Controller (from July 2019) of Dover; prior thereto Assistant Controller, Global Consolidations & Operations Accounting (from August 2017 to July 2019); prior thereto partner at PricewaterhouseCoopers LLP (from July 2012 to June 2017).|
ITEM 5. MARKET FOR REGISTRANT'S COMMON EQUITY, RELATED SHAREHOLDER MATTERS AND ISSUER PURCHASES OF EQUITY SECURITIES
Market Information and Dividends
The principal market in which Dover common stock is traded is the New York Stock Exchange.
The number of holders of record of Dover common stock as of February 4, 2020 was approximately 18,689. This figure includes participants in our domestic 401(k) program.
Securities Authorized for Issuance Under Equity Compensation Plans
Information relating to securities authorized for issuance under our equity compensation plans is contained in Part III, Item 12 of this Form 10-K.
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
Issuer Purchases of Equity Securities
During the year ended December 31, 2019, under our February 2018 standing share repurchase authorization, the Company purchased 1,343,622 shares of common stock at a total cost of $143.3 million or $106.64 per share. As of December 31, 2019, 8,360,044 shares remain authorized for repurchase.
The total number of shares purchased by month during the fourth quarter of 2019 were as follows:
|Total Number of Shares Purchased||Average Price Paid per Share||Total Number of Shares Purchased as Part of Publicly Announced Plans or Programs||Maximum Number (or Approximate Dollar Value in Thousands) of Shares that May Yet Be Purchased under the Plans or Program |
|Period||February 2018 Program || |
|October 1 to October 31||— || ||$||— || ||— || ||9,441,859 || |
|November 1 to November 30||523,744 || ||109.53 || ||523,744 || ||8,918,115 || |
|December 1 to December 31||558,071 || ||112.23 || ||558,071 || ||8,360,044 || |
|For the Fourth Quarter||1,081,815 || ||$||110.92 || ||1,081,815 || ||8,360,044 || |
This performance graph does not constitute soliciting material, is not deemed filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission ("SEC"), and is not incorporated by reference in any of our filings under the Securities Act of 1933 or the Exchange Act of 1934, whether made before or after the date of this Form 10-K and irrespective of any general incorporation language in any such filing, except to the extent we specifically incorporate this performance graph by reference therein.
Comparison of Five-Year Cumulative Total Return +
Dover Corporation, S&P 500 Index, Old & New Peer Group Index
Total Shareholder Returns
Data Source: Research Data Group, Inc
+Total return assumes reinvestment of dividends.
This graph assumes $100 invested on December 31, 2014 in Dover common stock, the S&P 500 index and an old and new peer group index.
The 2019 peer index consists of the following 30 public companies selected by Dover.
|3M Company||Flowserve Corporation||Nordson Corp. |
|Actuant Corp.||Fortive Corp. ||Parker-Hannifin Corp.|
|AMETEK Inc.||Gardner Denver Holdings Inc.||Pentair PLC|
|Carlisle Companies Inc.||Honeywell International Inc.||Regal Beloit Corp. |
|Colfax Corp. ||IDEX Corporation||Rockwell Automation Inc.|
|Corning Inc. ||Illinois Tool Works Inc.||Snap-On Inc. |
|Crane Company||Ingersoll-Rand PLC||SPX Flow Inc.|
|Danaher Corporation||ITT Inc.||Teledyne Technologies Inc. |
|Eaton Corporation Plc||Johnson Controls International PLC||Textron Inc. |
|Emerson Electric Co.||Lennox International Inc. ||The Timken Company|
ITEM 6. SELECTED FINANCIAL DATA
|in thousands except per share data||2019||2018||2017||2016||2015|
|Revenue||$||7,136,397 || ||$||6,992,118 || ||$||6,820,886 || ||$||6,043,224 || ||$||5,879,842 || |
|Earnings from continuing operations||677,918 || ||591,145 || ||746,663 || ||502,128 || ||525,208 || |
|(Loss) earnings from discontinued operations||— || ||(20,878)|| ||65,002 || ||6,764 || ||344,621 || |
|Net earnings||677,918 || ||570,267 || ||811,665 || ||508,892 || ||869,829 || |
|Basic earnings (loss) per share:|
|Continuing operations||$||4.67 || ||$||3.94 || ||$||4.80 || ||$||3.23 || ||$||3.33 || |
|Discontinued operations||— || ||(0.14)|| ||0.42 || ||0.04 || ||2.19 || |
|Net earnings||4.67 || ||3.80 || ||5.21 || ||3.28 || ||5.52 || |
|Weighted average basic shares outstanding||145,198 || ||149,874 || ||155,685 || ||155,231 || ||157,619 || |
|Diluted earnings (loss) per share:|
|Continuing operations||$||4.61 || ||$||3.89 || ||$||4.73 || ||$||3.21 || ||$||3.30 || |
|Discontinued operations||— || ||(0.14)|| ||0.41 || ||0.04 || ||2.17 || |
|Net earnings||4.61 || ||3.75 || ||5.15 || ||3.25 || ||5.46 || |
|Weighted average diluted shares outstanding||146,992 || ||152,133 || ||157,744 || ||156,636 || ||159,172 || |
|Dividends per common share||$||1.94 || ||$||1.90 || ||$||1.82 || ||$||1.72 || ||$||1.64 || |
|Capital expenditures||$||186,804 || ||$||170,994 || ||$||170,068 || ||$||139,578 || ||$||130,045 || |
|Depreciation and amortization||272,287 || ||282,580 || ||283,278 || ||249,672 || ||207,817 || |
Total assets (1)
|8,669,477 || ||8,365,771 || ||10,658,359 || ||10,130,325 || ||8,606,075 || |
|Total long-term debt, including current maturities||2,985,716 || ||2,943,660 || ||3,336,713 || ||3,207,632 || ||2,603,504 || |
All results and data in the table above reflect continuing operations, unless otherwise noted. See Note 4 — Acquisitions and Note 5 — Discontinued and Disposed Operations in the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for additional information regarding the impact of 2019, 2018 and 2017 acquisitions and disposed and discontinued operations.
(1) Includes assets from discontinued operations
ITEM 7. MANAGEMENT'S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The following Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations ("MD&A") is intended to help the reader understand our results of operations and financial condition for the three years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017. The MD&A should be read in conjunction with our Consolidated Financial Statements and Notes included in Item 8 of this Form 10-K. This discussion contains forward-looking statements that involve risks and uncertainties. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those discussed elsewhere in this Form 10-K, particularly in Item 1A. "Risk Factors" and in the "Special Note Regarding Forward-Looking Statements" preceding Part I of this Form 10-K.
Throughout this MD&A, we refer to measures used by management to evaluate performance, including a number of financial measures that are not defined under accounting principles generally accepted in the United States of America ("GAAP"). Please see "Non-GAAP Disclosures" at the end of this Item 7 for further detail on these financial measures. We believe these measures provide investors with important information that is useful in understanding our business results and trends. Reconciliations within this MD&A provide more details on the use and derivation of these measures.
Dover Corporation is a diversified global manufacturer and solutions provider delivering innovative equipment and components, consumable supplies, aftermarket parts, software and digital solutions and support services. Effective October 1, 2019, Dover transitioned from a three-segment to a five-segment structure as a result of a change to its management structure and operating model. Dover's five segments are structured around businesses with similar business models, go-to-market strategies and manufacturing practices. This new structure increases management efficiency and better aligns Dover’s operations with its strategic initiatives and capital allocation priorities, and provides greater transparency about our performance to external stakeholders. Dover's five operating and reportable segments are as follows: Engineered Products, Fueling Solutions, Imaging & Identification, Pumps & Process Solutions, and Refrigeration & Food Equipment.
For the year ended December 31, 2019, consolidated revenue from continuing operations was $7.1 billion, an increase of $0.1 billion or 2.1%, as compared to the prior year. This increase included organic revenue growth of 3.8% and acquisition-related growth of 0.8%, partially offset by an unfavorable impact of 2.0% from foreign currency translation and a 0.5% impact from dispositions. Overall, customer pricing had a favorable impact of 1.0% on revenue for the year.
Within our Engineered Products segment, revenue increased $64.4 million, or 3.9%, from the prior year, reflecting organic growth of 5.4%, offset by an unfavorable impact from foreign currency translation of 1.5%. Organic revenue growth was driven by strong activity in the refuse truck and digital solutions product lines within our waste handling business, as well as solid revenue growth in our vehicle service business.
Our Fueling Solutions segment revenue increased $154.6 million, or 10.5% from prior year, reflecting organic growth of 10.5%, acquisition-related growth of 3.4%, partially offset by an unfavorable foreign currency impact of 3.0%, and a 0.4% impact from a disposition. Organic growth was principally driven by continued strong demand in the global retail fueling industry, particularly in the United States, Europe and Asia.
Our Imaging & Identification segment revenue decreased $25.4 million or 2.3%, from the prior year, reflecting organic growth of 1.2%, more than offset by an unfavorable foreign currency impact of 3.5%. The organic revenue growth was driven by increased equipment shipments and expanded service revenue in our marking and coding business, along with increased service revenue and increased printer and ink volumes in our digital printing business. The significant foreign currency impact was due to our broad international customer base, in particular in Asia and Europe.
Our Pumps & Process Solutions segment revenue increased $6.6 million or 0.5%, from the prior year, reflecting organic growth of 3.9%, acquisition related growth of 0.5%, partially offset by unfavorable impacts from disposition of 2.0% and foreign currency of 1.9%. Organic growth was broad-based across the segment and was driven by industrial, biopharma and thermal management markets, along with continued strong demand from our OEM customers for rotating equipment components, as well as pump and other equipment for plastics and polymer production.
Our Refrigeration & Food Equipment segment revenue decreased $56.5 million, or 3.9%, from the prior year, caused by an organic revenue decline of 2.7% and an unfavorable impact from foreign currency translation of 1.2%. The organic decline was driven primarily by reduced new food retail store construction activity with key U.S. retail refrigeration customers, reduced demand for heat exchanger products in Asia, and softer demand from national restaurant chain customers in our foodservice equipment business.
Gross profit was $2.6 billion for the year ended December 31, 2019, an increase of $61.4 million, or 2.4%, as compared to the prior year. The increase was primarily due to growth in sales volumes benefited by favorable pricing, product mix and strong volume gains, as well as the benefits from prior restructuring actions, partially offset by increased material costs due, in part, to U.S. Section 232 and 301 tariff exposure. Gross profit margin was 36.7% for the year ended December 31, 2019 compared to 36.6% for the prior year. For further discussion related to our consolidated and segment results, see "Consolidated Results of Operations" and "Segment Results of Operations," respectively, within MD&A.
Bookings decreased 0.4% over the prior year to $7.3 billion for the year ended December 31, 2019. Included in this result was a 1.3% increase in organic bookings, a 0.8% increase in acquisition-related bookings offset by a 2.1% unfavorable impact due to foreign exchange rates, and a 0.3% decline due to dispositions. Organic bookings increased 6.9% within our Fueling Solutions, 3.3% within our Pumps & Process Solutions and 2.3% within our Imaging & Identification segments, while bookings in our Engineered Products and Refrigeration & Food Equipment segments decreased 4.0% and 0.7% respectively. Overall, our book-to-bill increased from the prior year to 1.02. Backlog as of December 31, 2019 was $1.5 billion, up from $1.4 billion from the prior year. Backlog as of December 31, 2019 included $0.5 billion, $0.2 billion, $0.1 billion, $0.4 billion and $0.3 billion in the Engineered Products, Fueling Solutions, Imaging & Identification, Pumps & Process Solutions and Refrigeration & Food Equipment segments, respectively.
From a geographic perspective, revenue for the U.S., our largest market, grew by 3.6% organically over the prior year, which was led by growth in our Engineered Products and Fueling Solutions segments. Asia and Europe also grew organically by 2.4 % and 6.5%, respectively, over the prior year.
During the year ended December 31, 2019, we executed several rightsizing programs to further optimize operations. Rightsizing charges included restructuring costs of $26.8 million and other costs of $5.3 million for the year ended December 31, 2019. Restructuring expense was comprised primarily of broad-based selling, general and administrative expense reduction initiatives and broad-based operational efficiency initiatives focusing on footprint consolidation, operational optimization and IT centralization. These restructuring charges were broad-based across all segments as well as corporate, with costs incurred of $3.2 million in Engineered Products, $4.9 million in Fueling Solutions, $6.4 million in Imaging & Identification, $5.7 million in Pumps & Process Solutions, $3.7 million in Refrigeration & Food Equipment and $3.0 million at Corporate. Other costs were comprised primarily of other charges related to the restructuring actions. We incurred other costs of $0.4 million in Pumps & Process Solutions, $2.4 million in Refrigeration & Food Equipment and $2.6 million at corporate. We expect to incur total rightsizing charges, comprised of $8 million of restructuring charges and $1 million of other costs, in 2020 for these initiatives.
During the year ended December 31, 2019, we made a total of three acquisitions totaling $216.4 million, net of cash acquired including contingent consideration. We acquired the assets of Belanger, Inc. ("Belanger"), a leading full-line car wash equipment manufacturer for $175 million, net of cash acquired. The acquisition of Belanger strengthens our position in the vehicle wash business within the Fueling Solutions segment. Additionally, we acquired the assets of All-Flow Pump Company, Limited business ("All-Flo"), a growing manufacturer of specialty pumps for $40 million. The All-Flo acquisition strengthens our position in the growing market for air-operated double-diaphragm pumps within the Pumps & Process Solutions segment. We also completed one immaterial acquisition. See Note 4 — Acquisitions in the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for further details regarding the businesses acquired during the year.
Subsequently, on January 24, 2020, we acquired Sys-Tech Solutions, Inc. ("Systech"). Systech is a leading provider of software and solutions for product traceability, regulatory compliance and brand protections and will strengthen the portfolio of solutions offered by our Imaging & Identification segment to customers in pharmaceutical and consumer products industries. Also on January 24, 2020, we entered into a definitive agreement to acquire So. Cal. Soft-Pak, Incorporated ("Soft-Pak") Software Solutions. Soft-Pak is a leading specialized provider of integrated back office, route management and customer relationship management software solutions to the waste and recycling fleet industry and will further strengthen the digital offerings of our Environmental Solutions Group in the Engineered Products segment. The transaction is subject to
satisfaction of customary closing conditions and is expected to close in the first quarter of 2020. The combined purchase price for both acquisitions is approximately $210 million, subject to customary post-closing adjustments.
On March 29, 2019 we entered into a definitive agreement to sell Finder for total consideration of approximately $23.6 million net of estimated selling costs. Finder met the criteria to be classified as held for sale as of March 31, 2019 and based on the total consideration from the sale, net of selling costs, a loss on the assets held for sale of $46.9 million was recorded. The loss was comprised of an impairment on assets held for sale of $21.6 million and foreign currency translation losses reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive losses to current earnings of $25.3 million. Finder was subsequently sold on April 2, 2019, which generated total cash proceeds of $24.2 million.
On November 4, 2019, we issued €500 million of 0.750% euro-denominated notes due 2027 and $300 million of 2.950% notes due 2029. The proceeds from the sale of euro-denominated notes of €494.7 million, net of discounts and issuance costs, were used in part to redeem the €300 million 2.125% notes due 2020. The proceeds from the sale of notes of $296.9 million, net of discounts and issuance costs, and the remaining funds from the sale of the euro-denominated notes, were used to fund the redemption of the $450 million 4.30% notes due 2021. The remainder of the proceeds will be used for general corporate purposes. The early extinguishment of debt required us to pay a make whole premium to the bondholders resulting in a loss of $23.5 million.
During the year ended December 31, 2019, we purchased 1.3 million shares of our common stock for a total cost of $143.3 million, or $106.64 per share. As of December 31, 2019, 8.4 million shares remain authorized for repurchase under our current share repurchase authorization. We also continued our 64 year history of increasing our annual dividend payments to shareholders and paid a total of $282.2 million in dividends to our shareholders.
CONSOLIDATED RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
| ||Years Ended December 31,||% / Point Change|
|(dollars in thousands, except per share figures)||2019||2018||2017||2019 vs. 2018||2018 vs. 2017|
|Revenue||$||7,136,397 || ||$||6,992,118 || ||$||6,820,886 || ||2.1 ||%||2.5 ||%|
|Cost of goods and services||4,515,459 || ||4,432,562 || ||4,291,839 || ||1.9 ||%||3.3 ||%|
|Gross profit||2,620,938 || ||2,559,556 || ||2,529,047 || ||2.4 ||%||1.2 ||%|
|Gross profit margin||36.7 ||%||36.6 ||%||37.1 ||%||0.10 || ||(0.50)|| |
|Selling, general and administrative expenses||1,599,098 || ||1,716,444 || ||1,722,161 || ||(6.8)||%||(0.3)||%|
|Selling, general and administrative expenses as a percent of revenue||22.4 ||%||24.5 ||%||25.2 ||%||(2.10)|| ||(0.70)|| |
|Loss on assets held for sale||46,946 || ||— || ||— || ||nm* || ||nm* || |
|Operating Earnings||974,894 || ||843,112 || ||806,886 || ||15.6 ||%||4.5 ||%|
|Interest expense||125,818 || ||130,972 || ||144,948 || ||(3.9)||%||(9.6)||%|
|Interest income||(4,526)|| ||(8,881)|| ||(8,491)|| ||(49.0)||%||4.6 ||%|
|Loss on extinguishment of debt||23,543 || ||— || ||— || ||nm* || ||nm* || |
|Other income, net||(12,950)|| ||(4,357)|| ||(2,251)|| ||197.2 ||%||93.6 ||%|
|Gain on sale of businesses||— || ||— || ||(203,135)|| ||nm* || ||nm* || |
|Earnings before provision for income taxes and discontinued operations||843,009 || ||725,378 || ||875,815 || ||16.2 ||%||(17.2)||%|
|Provision for income taxes||165,091 || ||134,233 || ||129,152 || ||23.0 ||%||3.9 ||%|
|Effective tax rate||19.6 ||%||18.5 ||%||14.7 ||%||1.1 || ||3.8 || |
|Earnings from continuing operations||677,918 || ||591,145 || ||746,663 || ||14.7 ||%||(20.8)||%|
|(Loss) earnings from discontinued operations, net||— || ||(20,878)|| ||65,002 || ||nm* || ||nm* || |
|Earnings from continuing operations per common share - diluted||$||4.61 || ||$||3.89 || ||$||4.73 || ||18.5 ||%||(17.8)||%|
|(Loss) earnings from discontinued operations per common share -diluted||$||— || ||$||(0.14)|| ||$||0.41 || ||nm* || ||nm* || |
* nm: not meaningful
For the year ended December 31, 2019, revenue increased $144.3 million, or 2.1% to $7.1 billion compared with 2018, reflecting organic growth of 3.8% led by our Fueling Solutions and Engineered Products segments, partially offset by our Refrigeration & Food Equipment segment. Revenue also increased due to acquisition-related growth of 0.8% from our Pumps & Process Solutions and Fueling Solutions segments, partially offset by an unfavorable impact from foreign currency translation of 2.0%, particularly in our Fueling Solutions and Imaging & Identification segments and a 0.5% impact from dispositions within our Pumps & Process Solutions and Fueling Solutions segments. Customer pricing favorably impacted revenue by approximately 1.0% in 2019.
For the year ended December 31, 2018, revenue increased $171.2 million, or 2.5% to $7.0 billion compared with 2017, reflecting organic growth of 3.7%, led by our Fueling Solutions and Engineered Products segments, partially offset by our Refrigeration & Food Equipment segment, acquisition-related growth of 0.5% from our Pumps & Process Solutions and Refrigeration & Food Equipment segments and a favorable impact from foreign currency translation of 0.8%. Revenue growth was partially offset by a 2.5% impact from dispositions within our Engineered Products segment. Customer pricing favorably impacted revenue by approximately 1.0% in 2018.
For the year ended December 31, 2019, gross profit increased $61.4 million, or 2.4%, to $2.6 billion compared with 2018, primarily due to organic volume growth, pricing actions, and productivity initiatives including the benefits of rightsizing actions and cost reduction initiatives, as well as reduced rightsizing costs, partially offset by increased material costs, due, in part, to U.S. Section 232 and 301 tariff exposure. Gross profit margin increased 10 basis points as compared to the prior year.
For the year ended December 31, 2018, gross profit increased $30.5 million, or 1.2% to $2.6 billion compared with 2017, primarily due to growth in sales volumes and benefits of prior restructuring actions partially offset by the loss of gross profits due to divestitures. Gross profit margin decreased 50 basis points as compared to prior year due to unfavorable product mix and rising material costs in our Refrigeration & Food Equipment segment and the impact of inefficiencies due to facility consolidations principally in our Fueling Solutions segment.
Selling, General and Administrative Expenses
Selling, general and administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2019, decreased $117.3 million, or 6.8% to $1.6 billion compared with 2018, primarily due to benefits from rightsizing actions started in 2018 and a decrease in restructuring costs of $23.7 million from $41.6 million in 2018 to $17.9 million in 2019. As a percentage of revenue, selling, general and administrative expenses decreased 210 basis points in 2019 to 22.4%, reflecting the leverage of costs on a higher revenue base and the decrease in expenses.
Selling, general and administrative expenses for the year ended December 31, 2018, decreased $5.7 million, or 0.3% to $1.7 billion compared with 2017 primarily due to benefits from prior restructuring actions and decreases from dispositions within our Engineered Products segment, offset by an increase in restructuring costs of $6.0 million from $35.6 million in 2017 to $41.6 million in 2018. As a percentage of revenue, selling, general and administrative expenses decreased 70 basis points in 2018 to 24.5%, reflecting the leverage of costs on a higher revenue base and the decrease in expenses.
Research and development costs, including qualifying engineering costs, are expensed when incurred and amounted to $141.0 million, $143.0 million and $130.5 million for the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively. These costs as a percent of revenue were 2.0%, 2.0% and 1.9% for the years December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively.
Loss on assets held for sale
On March 29, 2019, we entered into a definitive agreement to sell Finder for total consideration of approximately $23.6 million net of estimated selling costs. As of March 31, 2019, Finder met the criteria to be classified as held for sale and based on the total consideration from the sale, net of selling costs, we recorded a loss on the assets held for sale of $46.9 million. The loss was comprised of an impairment on assets held for sale of $21.6 million and foreign currency translation losses reclassified from accumulated other comprehensive losses to current earnings of $25.3 million. We subsequently sold Finder on April 2, 2019, which generated total cash proceeds of $24.2 million.
Interest Expense, net
For the year ended December 31, 2019, interest expense, net of interest income, decreased $0.8 million, or 0.7%, to $121.3 million compared with 2018 primarily due to the $350 million 5.45% 10-year notes that were paid in March 2018 that resulted in lower outstanding long-term debt and lower interest expense compared to 2018, partially offset by lower interest income.
For the year ended December 31, 2018, interest expense, net of interest income, decreased $14.4 million, or 10.5%, to $122.1 million compared with 2017 due to the $350 million that was paid in March 2018 that resulted in lower outstanding long-term debt and lower interest expense compared to 2017.
Loss on extinguishment of debt
On December 4, 2019, the Company extinguished the €300,000 2.125% notes due 2020 and the $450,000 4.30% notes due 2021. The Company was required to pay a make whole premium to the bondholders for the early extinguishment of debt, resulting in a loss of $23.5 million.
Other income, net
For the years ended December 31, 2019, 2018 and 2017, other income, net was $13.0 million, $4.4 million and $2.3 million, respectively. For the year ended December 31, 2019, other income increased compared to 2018 primarily due to increased earnings from our equity method investments and reduction of non-operating losses from our defined benefit and post-retirement benefit plans. For the year ended December 31, 2018, other income increased compared to 2017 primarily due to lower foreign exchange losses resulting from the re-measurement and settlement of foreign currency denominated balances.
Gain on sale of businesses
There were no dispositions in the year 2019 aside from the sale of Finder as described above, and no significant dispositions in 2018 aside from the spin-off of Apergy, whose results are presented as discontinued operations.
For the year ended December 31, 2017, gain on sale of businesses was $203.1 million. The gain was primarily due to the sales of PMI and the consumer and industrial winch business of Warn, both within the Engineered Products segment, in which we recognized gains on sale of $88.4 million and $116.9 million, respectively. Other immaterial dispositions completed during the year were recorded as a net loss of $2.2 million. The disposals in 2017 did not represent strategic shifts in operations and, therefore, did not qualify for presentation as discontinued operations.
Our businesses have a global presence with 46.8%, 52.5% and 37.8% of our pre-tax earnings in 2019, 2018 and 2017, respectively, generated in foreign jurisdictions. Foreign earnings are generally subject to local country tax rates that differ from the 21.0% U.S. statutory tax rate. As a result of our non-U.S. business locations, our effective foreign tax rate is typically lower than the U.S. statutory tax rate.
Our effective tax rate was 19.6% for the year ended December 31, 2019, compared to 18.5% for the year ended December 31, 2018. The 2019 and 2018 rates were impacted by $26.6 million and $24.0 million, respectively, of favorable net discrete items primarily driven by the tax benefit of share award exercises.
On December 22, 2017, the U.S. bill commonly referred to as the Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (“Tax Reform Act”) was enacted which reduced the U.S. corporate income tax rate from a maximum of 35% to a flat 21% rate, effective January 1, 2018. As a result of the reduction in the U.S. corporate income tax rate, we revalued our ending net deferred tax liabilities as of December 31, 2017 and recognized a provisional tax benefit of $172.0 million. The Tax Reform Act also imposed a tax for a one-time deemed repatriation of post-1986 unremitted foreign earnings and profits through the year ended December 31, 2017. For the year ended December 31, 2017, we recorded provisional tax expense related to the deemed repatriation of $111.6 million payable over eight years.
On December 22, 2017, the SEC staff issued SAB 118 to address the application of U.S. GAAP in situations when a registrant did not have the necessary information available, prepared, or analyzed (including computations) in reasonable detail to complete the accounting for certain income tax effects of the Tax Reform Act. In accordance with the SAB 118 guidance, we recognized the provisional tax impacts related to deemed repatriated earnings and the benefit for the revaluation of deferred tax assets and liabilities in our consolidated financial statements for the year ended December 31, 2017. In accordance with SAB 118, we finalized the financial reporting impact of the Tax Reform Act in the fourth quarter of 2018. For the year ended December 31, 2018, we recorded a $4.2 million net tax benefit, which resulted in a 0.6% decrease in the effective tax rate, as an adjustment to provisional estimates as a result of additional regulatory guidance and changes in interpretations and assumptions the Company has made as a result of the Tax Reform Act.
For the year ended December 31, 2017, our effective tax rate on continuing operations was 14.7%. The effective tax rate was impacted by favorable net discrete items totaling $51.7 million, principally related to the impact recorded for the U.S. Tax Reform Act.
We believe it is reasonably possible during the next twelve months that uncertain tax positions may be settled, which could result in a decrease in the gross amount of unrecognized tax benefits. This decrease may result in an income tax benefit. Due to the potential for resolution of federal, state, and foreign examinations and the expiration of various statutes of limitation, our gross unrecognized tax benefits balance may change within the next twelve months by a range of zero to $15.3 million. We believe adequate provision has been made for all income tax uncertainties.
Earnings from Continuing Operations
For the year ended December 31, 2019, earnings from continuing operations increased $86.8 million, or 14.7%, to $677.9 million, or $4.61 per share, compared with earnings from continuing operations of $591.1 million, or $3.89 per share, for the year ended December 31, 2018. Earnings increased due to organic volume growth, pricing actions, and productivity initiatives including the benefits of restructuring actions and cost reduction initiatives. Additionally, after-tax rightsizing costs were lower by $32.9 million in 2019 compared to 2018. These benefits more than offset increases in material costs due, in part, to U.S. Section 232 and 301 tariff exposure, as well as a loss due to the after-tax extinguishment of debt of $18.4 million and a loss on assets held for sale of $46.9 million. Diluted earnings per share also improved due to the benefit of the prior and current year share repurchases.
For the year ended December 31, 2018, earnings from continuing operations decreased $155.5 million, or 20.8%, to $591.1 million, or $3.89 per share, compared with earnings from continuing operations of $746.7 million, or $4.73 per share, for the year ended December 31, 2017. Earnings decreased primarily because we did not record any gains from dispositions in 2018 compared to 2017 when we recorded net after-tax gains from dispositions of $172.6 million. In 2018, we recorded a net tax benefit primarily from the Tax Reform Act of $4.2 million, whereas in 2017, we recorded a net tax benefit of $54.9 million. Additionally, after-tax rightsizing costs were higher by $23.7 million in 2018 compared to 2017. Excluding these items, earnings from continuing operations increased in 2018 as a result of higher earnings due to increased sales volumes. Diluted earnings per share also improved due to the benefit of the share repurchase programs announced in November 2017.
There were no discontinued operations for the year ended December 31, 2019.
The results of discontinued operations for December 31, 2018 and 2017 include the historical results of Apergy prior to its distribution on May 9, 2018. The years ended December 31, 2018 and 2017 included costs incurred by the Company to complete the spin-off of Apergy amounting to $46.4 million and $15.3 million, respectively, reflected in selling, general and administrative expenses in discontinued operations. Due to lump-sum payments made in 2018 for Apergy participants in the Dover U.S. Pension Plan, non-cash settlement costs of approximately $9.2 million were classified within discontinued operations.
Refer to Note 5 — Discontinued and Disposed Operations in the Consolidated Financial Statements in Item 8 of this Form 10-K for additional information on disposed and discontinued operations.
Rightsizing Activities, which includes Restructuring and Other Costs
During the year ended December 31, 2019, rightsizing activities included restructuring charges of $26.8 million and other costs of $5.3 million. Restructuring expense was comprised primarily of broad-based selling, general and administrative expense reduction initiatives and broad-based operational efficiency initiatives focusing on footprint consolidation, operational optimization and IT centralization designed to increase operating margin, enhance operations and position the Company for sustained growth and investment. Other costs were comprised primarily of other charges related to the restructuring actions. These rightsizing charges were recorded in cost of goods and services and selling, general and administrative expenses in the Consolidated Statement of Earnings. We expect to incur total rightsizing charges, comprised of $8 million in restructuring charges and $1 million in other costs, in 2020 for these initiatives. Additional programs, beyond the scope of the announced programs may be implemented during 2020 with related restructuring charges. We recorded the following rightsizing costs for the year ended December 31, 2019:
|Year Ended December 31, 2019|
|(dollars in thousands)||Engineered Products||Fueling Solutions||Imaging & Identification||Pumps & Process Solutions||Refrigeration & Food Equipment||Corporate||Total|
|Restructuring (GAAP)||$||3,155 || ||$||4,943 || ||$||6,426 || ||$||5,666 || ||$||3,671 || ||$||2,961 || ||$||26,822 || |
|Other costs, net||(5)|| ||(58)|| ||(76)|| ||462 || ||2,371 || ||2,637 || ||5,331 || |
|Rightsizing (non-GAAP)||$||3,150 || ||$||4,885 || ||$||6,350 || ||$||6,128 || ||$||6,042 || ||$||5,598 || ||$||32,153 || |
During the year ended December 31, 2018, rightsizing activities included restructuring charges of $58.5 million and other costs of $14.3 million. Restructuring expense was comprised primarily of several programs in order to further optimize operations, including 1) alignment of our cost structure in preparation for the Apergy separation, 2) broad-based selling, general and administrative expense reduction initiatives and 3) initiation of footprint consolidation actions. Other costs were comprised primarily of other charges related to the restructuring actions. These rightsizing charges were recorded in cost of goods and services, selling, general and administrative expenses and other income, net in the Consolidated Statement of Earnings. We recorded the following rightsizing costs for the year ended December 31, 2018:
|Year Ended December 31, 2018|
|(dollars in thousands)||Engineered Products||Fueling Solutions||Imaging & Identification||Pumps & Process Solutions||Refrigeration & Food Equipment||Corporate||Total|
|Restructuring (GAAP)||$||7,158 || ||$||15,478 || ||$||13,882 || ||$||10,266 || ||$||3,475 || ||$||8,244 || ||$||58,503 || |
|Other costs, net||128 || ||(146)|| ||(1,237)|| ||3,109 || ||6,474 || ||5,997 || ||14,325 || |
|Rightsizing (non-GAAP)||$||7,286 || ||$||15,332 || ||$||12,645 || ||$|